Same-Sex Parenting - LGBTQIA Healthcare Guild

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5 Scientific Reasons Gay Parents are Awesome


1. They choose to have kids

Straight couples all to frequently have "oops" babies. According to the Guttmacher Institute, about half of U.S. pregnancies are unplanned, and about half of those unplanned pregnancies end in birth rather than abortion. Parents of unplanned babies can do a great job, of course, but some are in dire circumstances. Two-thirds of unplanned births in 2006 were paid for by Medicaid or other low-income insurance programs, according to Guttmacher.

Gay couples, in contrast, generally have to plan to have babies, overcoming biological limits to adopt, find surrogates or sperm donors, or use in vitro fertilization methods. After persevering through those challenges, gay parents "tend to be more motivated, more committed than heterosexual parents on average, because they chose to be parents," Abbie Goldberg, a psychologist at Clark University in Massachusetts who researches gay and lesbian parenting, told LiveScience last year.

Thus, the group parenting score of gay parents isn't as dragged down by people who fell into parenthood accidentally and weren't prepared, Goldberg said. [10 Scientific Tips for Raising Happy Kids]

2. They nurture the neediest

Gay parents are a huge resource for kids awaiting adoption, particularly the neediest cases. In October 2011, the Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute found that 60 percent of gay and lesbian adoptive parents adopt across races, which is important because minority kids have a tougher time getting out of the foster system. And 25 percent of kids placed with adoptive gay and lesbian parents were older than 3 — also a tough age range to adopt. More than half of the kids had special needs.

A 2007 report by the Urban Institute found that more than half of gay men and 41 percent of lesbians in the United States would like to adopt. That's a huge number of potential parents, far dwarfing the more than 100,000 adoptable kids stuck in foster care today.

3. They foster tolerance

Here's an advantage straight from the horse's mouth: Kids raised by gay and lesbian parents say their upbringing taught them open-mindedness and empathy.

In a 2007 study published in the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Clark University's Goldberg interviewed 46 adults who grew up with at least one gay parent. Twenty-eight of the interviewees independently mentioned that they felt their upbringing made them more tolerant and accepting.

"Men and women felt like they were free to pursue a wide range of interests," Goldberg said. "Nobody was telling them, 'Oh, you can't do that, that's a boy thing,' or 'That's a girl thing.'" [5 Myths About Gay People Debunked]

4. Their kids do fine in school

Kids of gay parents appear to do well academically, too. A review of all of the existing research on same-sex parents and their children, published in 2010, found that their grade point averages (GPA) were on par with kids of two-parent heterosexual homes. In a study comparing teens living in both types of households, boys of lesbian parents had an average GPA of 2.9, compared with 2.65 for boys of heterosexual parents. Teen girls raised by two moms had an average GPA of 2.8, compared with 2.9 for girls raised by a mother and father. (Because more lesbians than gay men have children, studies on the former are more common.)

Another study in the analysis found the same rate of delinquent activities, such as shoplifting or fighting, in kids of lesbian parents and kids of straight parents.  

In May 2012, a study in the Journal of Marriage and Family found that kids in same-sex families scored the same in math ability as kids in heterosexual families, after controlling for family stability factors such as previous divorces.

5. They raise confident children

An upbringing in a same-sex household can give kids a boost of confidence. In a 2010 study published in the journal Pediatrics, researchers examined the kids of planned lesbian families, in which a single lesbian mother or two lesbian partners decided to have kids, in contrast to bringing them to the relationship from previous heterosexual partnerships. Like other studies of lesbian moms, this one found no significant differences from straight parents in kids' development and social behavior.

But the kids of lesbians were more confident than the kids of straight parents. According to the researchers, active involvement by parents may explain the self-esteem boost. 

From: Live Science - http://www.livescience.com/28079-why-gay-parents-are-awesome.html


Human Rights Campaign - 8 Questions to Ask Before Starting the Adoption Process


If you are considering adopting a child, you are in very good company!  There are an estimated 2 million LGBT adults in the U.S. who want to parent children, many via adoption.  There are numerous ingredients that go into successful adoptions.  Here are 8 questions you should ask yourself before you begin the process. If you are comfortable with your answers to these questions, congratulations! You are probably ready to begin the process.


CLICK HERE TO SEE STATE-BY-STATE ADOPTION LAWS


1. Public or Private Agency?


Public child welfare agencies are government entities that provide a safety net for families. Each county and jurisdiction has its own department of social services responsible for caring for children and youth in foster care and those unable to be reunited with their first families are often available for adoption. Many state, county and city public child welfare offices recognize that LGBT applicants are excellent prospects to parent youth in their care.  The disadvantages of public agencies are the bureaucracies involved and the lengthy period it can take to complete the process.  The advantages are the very low (or no) cost to adopt and the occasional, short-term financial stipends to help you support your new child.


Private agencies are licensed and regulated by the state they reside in and are often non-profits.   Many LGBT adults choose to adopt through private adoption agencies, especially those agencies with demonstrated sensitivity to LGBT applicants.  While these adoptions can be costly, applicants are often treated very well and can exercise some control over the type of infant or youth they adopt.


2. What child is right for me/us?



Think carefully about the type of child you feel most able to parent. Please remember that adopting a child is primarily for the child’s benefit, not yours.  If she has physical, emotional, or mental challenges, will she eventually thrive with you as her parent? If he has a high need for attention, are you prepared to let him have the spotlight? Would you consider adopting a child who comes with a sister or brother? Are you adamant that you must adopt a girl, not a boy or vice versa? Are you prepared to parent a straight teenager?  Or are you pretty open to the kinds of children needing a safe, loving and permanent home? The more flexible you are, the greater the chances of success for both you and your child!


3. Do you have the necessary investments child-rearing requires?


These investments are far more than buying clothes, giving a weekly allowance, or saving for college, although those are important. Can you provide unconditional love to a child? Are you willing to get interested in activities for which your child shows aptitude? Can you be your child’s educational advocate with the school system? Can you lovingly establish, and enforce, reasonable limits? Are you ready to be completely out to your child? If you are partnered, will both of you share these commitments to your new child? If you answered yes to these, you are probably ready to make the necessary investments in the child.


4. Do you have the patience to wait for your child to show you love?


Some children, especially those older than age 5 or so, have a hard time bonding with, and trusting new adults. Are you ready for your new older child to have a very healthy dose of skepticism about you and your commitment to them? Are you prepared to wait for them to return your love?


5. Do you have the social and community resources around you that will help you and them along the way?


Will your friends and family embrace the new family unit? Does your community (i.e., LGBT resources, spiritual center, schools) offer events and groups that could be valuable to you and your child? Is there an active LGBT parent support group in the area?


6. Are you patient enough to successfully complete pre- and post-adoption placement counseling?


All agencies, public and private, will require you to complete some counseling before and after you adopt. Do you welcome that support or do you view it as intrusive and unwelcome?


7. Are you ready to be 100% honest and transparent with the agency worker?


The worker will evaluate you, your home, financial records, employers, family, medical and psychiatric history, criminal background and so forth to see if you are likely to become a good parent. It’s important to understand that the agency worker is not looking for perfect parents. She or he is looking for your honesty and a reasonably good match with a child in need of a loving home.


8. Have you had a major life event in the past 12 months?


For instance, have you separated from or lost a partner, moved across the country, experienced the death of someone close, lost your job, married your new love, suffered a significant illness or accepted major new job duties? If so please let your significant life events settle in for a while, then re-evaluate whether or not you still want to adopt. Avoid adopting as a remedy for or as an add-on to another major life event. Adoption of a child is a major life event in its own right. It is unwise to couple it with another life event.



Human Rights Campaign - About Foster Parenting


More than half a million children are currently in foster care in the U.S.   This means they have been temporarily placed with families outside of their own home due to child abuse or neglect.  Their homes have been broken by death, divorce, drugs, alcohol, physical or sexual abuse, illness or financial hardship. Of these children in foster care, over 14,000 children are currently living with lesbian or gay foster parents.

The goal of foster parenting is to provide a safe, stable, nurturing environment. Foster parenting requires courage, empathy, patience and tenacity as well as love.

What to Prepare For

One of the most important things a foster parent needs to be prepared for is having a child in your home and then having them leave. Nearly half of all children in foster care have an end goal to be reunited with their families.

Many children come into the foster care system with emotional problems for which a foster family will have to prepare. A lot of these problems stem from feelings of abandonment, experiencing abuse and a lack of nurturing. Patience and preparation are necessities for foster parents.

Steps to Becoming a Foster Parent

Requirements for becoming a foster parent differ from state to state. However, there are some universal requirements such as: being 21 years of age or older; passing a criminal background check; and completing a successful homestudy and training.

Below are the basic steps to becoming a foster parent as outlined by the National Foster Parent Association. These steps are standard no matter where you decide to foster parent.

  1. Complete an application for a family home license.

  2. Complete a background check, a criminal history check and finger printing of each adult member of the household.

  3. Have a stable and supportive family.

  4. Complete a homestudy and interview.

  5. Provide character references.

  6. Be 21 years of age or older.

  7. Complete training before you may receive your license.


Finding an Agency

While the names may vary, you need to contact the government agency in your state that is responsible for foster care. It might be called "The Department of Human Resources," "The Division of Children and Family Services," "The Department of Social Services" or something similar. For the easiest way to find the foster care agency in your state, go to the National Foster Care & Adoption Directory Search maintained by the Child Welfare Information Gateway.

Make sure you do your research when selecting an agency that will license you. Along with your own research, contact LGBT resources within your community to see if there are any agencies that come recommended. An agency that is open and accepting of your family will make the entire process go smoother.

Foster Parenting and Finances

The decision to become a foster parent includes several financial considerations. In most cases, foster parents receive a set reimbursement to help with expenses while a child is in their home. The monthly stipend ranges from $200 to $700, depending on the age of the child and the state and county you are in. Most states also provide small clothing allowances and some day care or day camp funds. Foster children also are covered under your county, state and federal welfare health benefits for their medical and dental needs.

For More Information

Federal Tax Guide for Foster Parents [www.npainc.org]


American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) - Refuting the Myths About Gay Parents


The ACLU has advocated on behalf of LGBT people for over 70 years and in 1986 founded the Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender & AIDS Project, a division of the national American Civil Liberties Union Foundation. The Project's staff are experts in constitutional law and civil rights, specializing in sexual orientation, gender identity and HIV/AIDS. The ACLU's nationwide network of affiliates allows the Project to work for fairness and equality at the local, state and federal levels, affecting change in the courts and legislatures, as well as in the court of public opinion.



Argument #1: Kids are best off in a family with a mother and a father.

Years of research that compares children raised by heterosexual couples with children raised by same-sex couples has consistently shown that children are equally well-adjusted whether they have two mothers, two fathers, or a mother and a father.

Some anti-gay activists rely on research showing the benefits of two-parent families versus single-parent families to argue that married heterosexual couples provide a better setting for children than gay couples. But these studies compare only families with heterosexual parents (single vs. married) and reach conclusions about the number of parents (as well as the impact of divorce), not the gender of the parents. All of the research that compares children raised by same-sex couples to those raised by male/female couples shows that the children are equally well-adjusted.

Argument #2: Gay people cannot provide stable homes.

Not a single study of families with gay parents has found that the parents’ sexual orientation correlates with instability. All of the major child welfare organizations affirm that gay and lesbian parents are just as likely as heterosexual parents to provide supportive, healthy homes.

Moreover, the research on the relationships of same-sex couples shows that they are just as likely as heterosexual couples to be healthy, loving, and stable.

Argument #3: Gay parents molest their children.

The research has long demonstrated that there is simply no connection between homosexuality and pedophilia and thus, no basis for this terrible myth. Indeed, the research shows that people who are pedophiles often have no sexual interest in adults, male or female.

Argument #4: Children raised by gay parents will grow up to be gay.

The research on adolescent and adult children who were raised by gay parents shows that, like their peers, the vast majority grow up to be heterosexual. One study found that while few of the children of gay parents identified as gay, a larger minority of children in this group reported being open to or actually having had a same-sex sexual experience. It would seem logical that growing up with parents who do not condemn homosexuality- and openly gay parents presumably would be among those parents who don’t- would reduce an individual’s reluctance to acknowledge, accept, or act upon same-sex sexual desires if they experience them.

Argument #5: The studies on gay families are flawed and prove nothing.

Given that there is not a single child development study indicating that gay parents are less capable parents or that their children are disadvantaged in any way, anti-gay activists have resorted to quibbling with the methodology used in the scientific studies on children of gay parents (all of which conclude that the children are equally well-adjusted). They argue that this research should be disregarded because its methodology is inadequate.

There is no basis for this assertion. Esteemed developmental psychologists at respected universities around the world have conducted the body of research on gay parents and their children. The studies have been published in some of the most selective academic journals in the field, and thus were subjected to a rigorous peer review process that ensures that they meet the expert consensus on accepted scientific methods. The methods that the anti-gay activists are attacking are well-accepted social science methods that are routinely used by researchers in the field of psychology. If their criticism were valid, most psychological research would have to be thrown out.



American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) - Leading Research on Gay Parenting


These summaries provide the main findings of the leading social science studies focused on gay parents and their children. See Too High A Price for further information on the research studies of LGBT families.

Experience of Parenthood, Couple Relationship, Social Support, and Child-Rearing Goals in Planned Lesbian Mother Families
Henny M.W. Bos, Frank van Balen, Dymphna C. van den Boom

This study focused on whether lesbian couples with children differ from heterosexual couples with children, in terms of parenting competence, burdens, stress, parenting justification, relationship satisfaction, division of labor, use of social support, and the child rearing goals of conformity and autonomy. No differences were found with respect to most of these factors. However, there were some differences: among the lesbian couples, there was more sharing of family responsibilities and, thus, more satisfaction with their partners then among the heterosexual couples; the lesbian mothers found children’s conformity to social expectations less important than heterosexual parents did; and lesbian non-biological mothers shared greater need to justify the quality of their parenting than did heterosexual fathers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45:4 (2004), pp. 755-764.

Family Functioning in Lesbian Families Created by Donor Insemination
Katrien Vanfraussen, Ingrid Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Anne Brewaeys

This study compared the relationship between parent and child in heterosexual and lesbian families in the following categories: parent participation in child activities, general conversations between parent and child, emotional issues, affection, quarrels/disputes, and authority. This study found virtually no differences in how parents and children in each group perceived the quality of their relationships with one another. One of the differences between the two types of families was that the biological and non-biological mothers in the lesbian families shared parental responsibilities for their child more equally than in heterosexual families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 0002-9432, January 1, 2003, Vol. 73, Issue 1

What Does It Mean for Youngsters to Grow up in a Lesbian Family Created by Means of Donor Insemination?
K. Vanfraussen, I. Ponjaert-Kristoffersen & A. Brewaeys

This study explored how children from lesbian families created by donor insemination presented their non-traditional family to their peers, whether these children were teased or harassed about their parents’ sexual orientation, and whether introducing a non-traditional family to their peers affected their psychological well being. The study found that these children were not more likely to be teased than children of heterosexual families, but if teased, it was more likely to be family-related teasing incidents. Moreover, introducing their non-traditional family to their peer group did not interfere with their psychological well being; in fact, children from both groups of families had equally good self-esteem and felt equally accepted by their peers.
Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2002.

Parenting Behaviors of Homosexual and Heterosexual Fathers
Jerry J. Bigner and R. Brooke Jacobsen

This study investigated parenting behaviors in heterosexual and gay fathers. Gay fathers did not differ significantly from heterosexual fathers in terms of overall parental involvement, intimacy, and parenting skills. There were some differences between the groups in approaches to parenting; for example, gay fathers tended to be more communicative with their children and to enforce rules more strictly. 1989. Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 18, pp. 173-186.

Adult Responses to Child Behavior and Attitudes Toward Fathering: Gay and Non-Gay Fathers
Jerry J. Bigner, R. Brooke Jacobsen

This study found no differences between parenting behaviors and attitudes about fathering between gay and heterosexual fathers. 1992. Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 99-112.

Donor Insemination: Child Development and Family Functioning in Lesbian Mother Families
A. Brewaeys, I. Ponjaert, E.V. Van Hall, and S. Golombok

This study found that children in lesbian mother homes were as positive and healthy as children in homes headed by a mother and a father. Researchers compared children of lesbian couples conceived via donor insemination, children of heterosexual couples conceived via donor insemination, and children of heterosexual couples who conceived conventionally. Overall, lesbian non-biological mothers were found to have better relationships with their children than the heterosexual fathers. No differences were found between the three groups of children. 1997. Human Reproduction, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 1349-1359.

Division of Labor Among Lesbian and Heterosexual Parents: Associations with Children's Adjustment
Raymond W. Chan, Risa C. Brooks, Barbara Raboy, and Charlotte J. Patterson

This study found that lesbian couples and heterosexual couples reported even splits of household labor and decision-making. In the area of childcare, the heterosexual couples had a less equal distribution of responsibilities, with the mothers generally taking a larger role. There were no differences between the groups of children in their social adjustment with peers. 1998. Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 402-419.

Psychosocial Adjustment among Children Conceived via Donor Insemination by Lesbian and Heterosexual Mothers
Raymond W. Chan, Barbara Raboy, and Charlotte Patterson

This study found that the sexual orientation and relationship status of parents had no significant impact on the psychological well being of their children. Rather, children were impacted by other factors, such as parents' psychological well being and parenting stress—neither of which had anything to do with sexual orientation. 1998 (April). Child Development, Vol. 69, No. 2, pages 443-457.

Lesbians Choosing Motherhood: A Comparative Study of Lesbian and Heterosexual Parents and Their Children
David K. Flaks, Ilda Ficher, Frank Masterpasqua, Gregory Joseph

This study found that children of lesbians and children of heterosexuals were equally healthy in terms of psychological well-being and social adjustment. The lesbian mothers were found to have more developed parenting awareness skills than the heterosexual parents. 1995. Developmental Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 105-114.

Children in Lesbian and Single-Parent Households: Psychosexual and Psychiatric Appraisal
Susan Golombok, Ann Spencer, and Michael Rutter

This study found no significant differences between children raised by lesbians and children raised by single heterosexual mothers on measures of emotions, behavior, and relationships with peers. Also, no differences were found in terms of their gender identity or gender behavior. 1983. Journal of Child Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 551-572.

Adults Raised as Children in Lesbian Families
Fiona Tasker and Susan Golombok

This study found no significant difference between children raised by lesbian parents and those raised by heterosexual parents in the quality of the young adults' relationships with their mothers, in incidences of teasing or bullying in high school, or in their emotional well-being. No differences were found in the proportion of each group that reported experiencing sexual attraction to someone of the same sex, though the children of lesbians were more likely to act, or consider acting, on those attractions. 1995. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 65, No.2, pp.203-215.

Do Parents Influence the Sexual Orientation of Their Children? Findings From a Longitudinal Study of Lesbian Families
Susan Golombok and Fiona Tasker

This study found that there was no significant difference in the number of self-identified lesbian and gay young adults from lesbian-headed families and from heterosexual-headed families. Similarly, no significant difference was found between the two groups in those who reported experiencing same-sex attraction. Daughters of lesbians, however, were significantly more likely to report being open to same-sex attractions or relationships. Children of lesbians were significantly more likely to have had a same-sex sexual experience. 1996. Developmental Psychology, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 3-11.

Lesbian Mothers and Their Children: A Comparison with Solo Parent Heterosexual Mothers and Their Children
Richard Green, Jane Barclay Mandel, Mary E. Hotvedt, James Gray, Laurel Smith

This study found that children of lesbians and children of heterosexual single mothers show no differences in gender identity and social adjustment with peers. Some differences were detected in gender behavior: daughters of lesbians were found to be less confined in their choices by stereotypical notions of feminine- and masculine- appropriate behavior. Some significant differences were detected between the mothers themselves. Lesbian mothers had higher levels of self-confidence and sought more leadership roles, while the heterosexual mothers had lower self-confidence and sought subordinate roles. 1986. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 167-185.

Gay and Lesbian Parents
Mary B. Harris and Pauline H. Turner

This study found no significant parenting differences between gay and lesbian parents and their heterosexual counterparts. 1985-86. Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 101-113.

Children's Acquisition of Sex-Role Behavior in Lesbian-Mother Families
Beverly Hoeffer

This study found no significant differences between the gender behavior of children of lesbian and heterosexual mothers. It also found that lesbian mothers were significantly more likely to prefer that their kids play with a more equal mix of masculine and feminine toys, while heterosexual mothers tended to prefer that girls play with stereotypically feminine toys and boys play with stereotypically masculine toys. 1981. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 51, No. 3. pp. 536-544.

Children of Lesbian Mothers
Mary E. Hotvedt and Jane Barclay Mandel

No significant differences were found between children of divorced lesbian and heterosexual mothers in terms of general well being and relationships with peers. There were no differences between boys in terms of gender behavior, but daughters of lesbians tended to have preferences in play and career choice that were not confined by traditional notions of female toys and occupations. 1982. Homosexuality, Social, Psychological, and Biological Issues, edited by W. Paul. Sage: Beverly Hills, CA.

A Comparative Study of Self-Esteem of Adolescent Children of Divorced Lesbian Mothers and Divorced Heterosexual Mothers
Sharon L. Huggins

This study found no significant difference between the self-esteem of children with heterosexual mothers and children with lesbian mothers. 1989. Homosexuality and the Family, edited by F.W. Bozett. Haworth: New York.

The Children of Homosexual and Heterosexual Single Mothers
Ghazala Afzal Javaid

Significantly more lesbian mothers than heterosexual mothers expressed willingness to accept their child if he or she later came out as gay. No differences were found between children in terms of gender identity or sexual orientation. 1993. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 235-248.

Lesbian Mothers and Their Children: A Comparative Survey
Martha Kirkpatrick, Catherine Smith, and Ron Roy

This study found no difference between children of lesbian mothers and children of single heterosexual mothers in psychological well-being or gender behavior. 1981 (July). American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 545-551.

Heterosexual and Homosexual Mothers' Self Described Sex-Role Behavior and Ideal Sex-Role Behavior in Children
Sally L. Kweskin and Alicia S. Cook

This study found that a mother's gender behavior—not her sexual orientation—may be a more important influence on her children's gender identity. 1982. Sex Roles, Vol 8., No. 9, pp. 967-975.

Families and Parenting: A Comparison of Lesbian and Heterosexual Mothers
Kevin F. McNeill, Beth M. Rienzi, and Augustine Kposowa

This study found that lesbian and heterosexual mother groups did not differ significantly in relationships with their children, parenting practices, and overall family stress. 1998. Psychological Reports, Vol. 82, pp. 59-62.

The Child's Home Environment for Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Mother: A Neglected Area of Research
Judith Ann Miller, R. Brooke Jacobsen, Jerry J. Bigner

This study measured the way lesbian and heterosexual mothers responded to a variety of situations involving their children. It found that lesbian mothers were significantly more likely to respond in a child-oriented way (oriented more towards helping the child understand the situation) than the heterosexual mothers who responded in more task-oriented ways (simply disciplining the children without explaining why). 1981 (Fall). Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 49-56.

Children of the Lesbian Baby Boom: Behavioral Adjustment, Self-Concepts, and Sex Role Identity
Charlotte Patterson

This study found that children of lesbian mothers did not differ from other children in the areas of psychological well-being, social adjustment with peers, and gender behavior. The children of lesbian mothers had two differences: they tended to have both a higher stress level and a higher sense of well being. 1994. Lesbian & Gay Psychology: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications, edited by B. Green and G.M. Herek. SAGE: Thousand Oaks, California.

Psychological Health and Factors: The Court Seeks to Control in Lesbian Mother Custody Trials
Catherine Rand, Dee L. R. Graham, and Edna I. Rawlings

This study found no significant differences between lesbian mothers and other mothers in psychological health. It also found that divorced lesbians tend to have a better level of mental health if they are open about their sexuality to their children and former husband. 1982 (Fall). Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 27-39.

Rozzie and Harriet? Gender and Family Patterns of Lesbian Coparents
Maureen Sullivan

This study investigated the relationships of lesbian couples who have children and the way these women share responsibilities. The study found that most of the couples share responsibility in more egalitarian ways than the stereotypical, nuclear family model, but the author did not study any heterosexual parents. 1996 (December). Gender & Society, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 747-767.


Parenting - Additional Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Resources



American Psychological Association (APA) Division 44 - Lesbian and Gay Parenting


American Psychological Association (APA) - Lesbian and Gay Parenting


Simple Surrogacy - for LGBT Parenting


Gay Parent Magazine - For Current or Wanna Be Parents

Rainbow Babies - LGBT Families and Parents to Be


Association Of Reproductive Health Professionals

Families Like Ours, Inc. - Gay and Lesbian Foster and Adoption Info

Family Equality Council - Advocacy and Education for GLBT Parents

Parenting IS Prevention Project - Healthy Drug Free Children


Open Adoptions


Two Lives - LGBT Book Resources for Families, Friends, Communities, Schools


Talking to Our Children about Our Families


Research on LGBT Parents and Their Children


Families Joined By Love - Books and Resources for LGBT Families

COLAGE


Family Pride


Georgia Mega Family Project


Colage San Francisco


Rainbow Families New Jersey


Rainbow Families Illinois


Houston Gay and Lesbian Parents


Our Family Coalition San Francisco


The Pop Luck Club L.A.


Lesbian and Gay Family-Building Project New York


Philadelphia Family Pride

 

Families Like Ours - Resources for LGBT Parents

The mission of Families Like Ours is to overcome barriers for ALL families – traditional and non-traditional wishing to foster or adopt children of all ages and backgrounds. We achieve this through strong individual family and youth advocacy, a continuum of family support, community outreach and education. As an independent advocate for youth and families, we are able to overcome obstacles insuring that the right of a supportive permanent family is protected...


Gay Parent LGBT Parenting Magazine

Gay Parent magazine is the longest running, nationally distributed publication dedicated to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parenting (LGBT). In September 1998, Gay Parent magazine's (GPM) web site was launched online.  GPM is published bi-monthly and distributed mainly free through gay community centers and bookstores across the USA. Gay Parent magazine's focus is to support and empower LGBT parents and  LGBTs wishing to become first time parents...


Transparent - Empowers Children to Live Authentically

Our vision is to advance the understanding and acceptance of gender independent children.  Our primary goal is to take families from a place of isolation to a shared journey and discover how parents, grandparents, extended family and our community can best support our children in their journey towards living an authentic life...


Adoption Institute - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Parents

Despite laws in some states that impede the practice, a
growing number of lesbians and gay men are adopting children in the United States – at least half of them providing families for boys and girls from foster care and 60% adopting transracially, according to the results of an extensive new survey by the Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute.... Click on the icon to the right to read “Research-Based Best Practices in Adoption by Gays and Lesbians”
 

American Academy of Pediatrics Supports LGBT Adoption and Foster Rights

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports same-gender couples adoption and foster care rights for all parents, regardless of sexual orientation.  Increasing numbers of children have been adopted by gay or lesbian individuals or couples in recent years. In some states this has stimulated political debate and public policy change. A growing body of scientific literature reveals that children who grow up with one or two gay and/or lesbian parents will develop emotionally, cognitively, socially, and sexually as well as children whose parents are heterosexual. Parents’ sexual orientation is much less important than having loving and nurturing parents.s....


Help Starts Here - Social Workers Resources for Gay and Lesbian Parenting and Adoption

Research suggests that there were 542,000 children in foster care in the United States in 2001 and as many as one third of these children may be eligible for adoption. Many gay and lesbian adults and couples are interested in adopting children. However, discrimination has made it difficult for gay and lesbian adults and couples to complete the adoption process (Brodzinsky, 2003). Although it is not commonly known, the research regarding parenting by gays and lesbians is very positive...


Lesbian and Gay Parenting Resources - American Psychological Association

This forensic oriented publication is narrowly focused on providing an orientation to the research literature for psychologists doing child custody evaluations or giving expert testimony in court cases involving lesbian mothers. In addition, the publication is also targeted for lawyers and parties in parental rights cases involving lesbian parents, as the information provided could assist them in being better informed about the potential role of psychological research or psychological witnesses in their cases...


American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Policy Statement on Same-Sex Parenting

There is no evidence to suggest or support that parents who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender are per se superior or inferior from or
deficient in parenting skills, child-centered concerns, and parent-child attachments when compared with heterosexual parents. There is no credible evidence that shows that a parent's sexual orientation or gender identity will adversely affect the development of the child...


The Family Equality Council for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Families

Family Equality Council connects, supports, and represents the one million parents who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender in this country and their two million children. We are changing attitudes and policies to ensure that all families are respected, loved, and celebrated—including families with parents who are LGBT. We are a community of parents and children, grandparents and grandchildren that reaches across this country. For 30 years we have raised our children and raised our voices toward fairness for all families...


Gay-Themed Picture Books for Children

This list serves three
purposes: for parents who would like to find books for their children about the experience of being a child in a gay family, or having a gay friend or family member, two: for librarians who would like to develop collections on this topic, and three: for counselors and therapists who would like to use these books in their practices...


 
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